How worried should we be about Brazil?

Stephanie de Torquat (pictured), investment strategist at Lombard Odier, sees three main risks for Brazil : political instability, an acceleration of the Chinese cyclical slowdown, China being the country’s main trading partner, and a fiscal risk due to the rising private debt.

We have been particularly concerned about the Brazilian economy for some time now, but the pace of economic deterioration has accelerated over the past few months.

Given the fragility of the global environment, the potential risks and implications of such a slowdown cannot be dismissed.

Indeed, markets seem to be pricing in mounting odds of defaults in Brazil, with a collapsing currency and widening credit default swaps spreads.

At first glance, it would appear that the oil price decline since the summer of 2014 is the reason behind the Brazilian economic slowdown, since it was concomitant with a sharp deterioration of both the country’s current
account and budget deficit. However, Brazil’s fundamentals had already been deteriorating for the better part of 10 years – even as commodity prices were booming.

In addition, real household consumption expenditures and investment have been trending down since 2009. Brazilian issues thus go well beyond falling oil prices – the latter factor having served not to create them but to bring them to light.

What then is the underlying cause for Brazil’s woes and, most importantly, how worried should we be going forward?

We currently see three main risks for Brazil, the most important being political instability. Sustainable economic improvement in Brazil will not be possible without a stronger political landscape.

To understand this, remember that Brazil has been a welfare state since the establishment of the social contract in the 1988 Federal Constitution. For instance, 90% of the government budget cannot be reduced without changing laws, and many variables, such as the minimum wage, are linked to inflation.

As a consequence, the budget deficit keeps deteriorating, and the country desperately needs a strong government to implement the reforms required to put the country back on a healthier fiscal path.

Unfortunately, President Dilma Rousseff is extremely unpopular, not only among the population, as evidenced by her sharp fall in opinion polls, but also within her own party, making it close to impossible for her to drive any substantial reform.

While there have been talks of impeachment following her potential involvement in the Petrobras scandal, such a development would also generate instability and uncertainty, particularly since no political leader stands out today as a strong and credible alternative.

The second risk for Brazil, although not our base case scenario, would be an acceleration of the Chinese cyclical slowdown, China being the country’s main trading partner.

The final key risk facing Brazil is fiscal. In terms of private sector debt, Brazil still compares relatively well to the rest of the emerging world. But the pace at which this debt is increasing could become worrisome, and we would not be surprised to see rising defaults in months to come. In addition, mounting private debt will inevitably weigh on consumption, savings, investment and growth.

That being said, most of the private debt is now in public hands, like the Bank of Brazil.

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